The Green Revolution directs attention towards the high tech industrial and mechanical acceleration in the agriculture that substituted the methods and techniques the farmers used to administer their farms.
This conversion allowed the farmers to grow and harvest greater amount of crops with lesser manpower and labor force.
The term Green Revolution was primarily coined by William Goud indicating the dominance and influences that science and technology has over economic environment.
- Green Revolutions describe a prompt increase in the production of crops extending from wheat to rice.
- It compelled a boom in the agriculture industry.
- It was a technological response to a worldwide shortage of food after the World War 2.
It focused on three interconnected actions:
- Breeding programs for essential and staple grains provides early maturing and high yielding varieties.
- The organization and distribution of fertilizers, pesticides,
- Implementation of these technological advances.
The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, known as the ‘Father of Green Revolution’. He is credited with saving over a billion people from starvation.
In India, the seeds of green revolution were first tested during the drought of 1964-1965 and later planted in different soils of Punjab, Delhi, Pusa and Kanpur. M.S. Swaminathan an Indian geneticist, is known as ‘Father of Indian Green Revolution’.
There was an exceptional maximization in the production of food crops. Green revolution brought good fortune and prosperity to the farmers. The escalated production made the country self-sufficient and self-reliant in food grains.
Mechanized and scientific methods in farming complemented other industries along. Tractors, harvesters, threshers, electrical motors, diesel engines, pumps etc began to be manufactured on a wide scale. Consequently, there were increased employment opportunities, especially in the rural areas.
The Flip Side
Even though, Green Revolution emerged as an unmatched event in the history of independent India by fixing the problems of hunger, scarcity, and starvation, yet it had marked loss of points.
The nutritional content of the products were questioned. The consumption of the pesticides used to kill pests may have increased the likelihood of cancer. Green revolution has greatly profited the rich farmers but has failed to benefit the smaller ones. Moreover, not all the parts of the country were benefitted. All the crops could not reap the results of green revolution except rice and wheat.
The Way Forward
According to Norman Borlaug, “The green revolution has an entirely different meaning to most people in the affluent nations of the privileged world than to those in the developing nations of the forgotten world”.
Although the green revolution has been able to improve agricultural output in many regions, but there was and there is still room for improvement. Therefore, in 2006 Ex-Prime Minister Manmohan Singh called for a second green revolution in the country that would focus on non-food crops, horticulture, and also new plant varieties. Talking into consideration the criticism that the first green revolution faced, the Prime Minister said that the second one should focus on the dry land agriculture and benefit small and marginal farmers.
Hence, in order to do away with the ill-effects of green revolution, we need to expand the cultivated area, include maximum variety of crops, use effective irrigation and increase the intensity of cropping. We also need to find ways to benefit our small and marginal farmers, only then the green revolution can spread truly to all parts of the country.